Trinitrotoluene is a normal-strength blasting explosive. It is also known as trinitrotoluol, tolite, trinol, trotyl, TNT, T. It is an Explosive Reference Substance.
TNT does not react with solid matters (metal, wood, plastics, concrete, brick, etc.), dissolve in water, non-hygroscopic, demonstrates constant explosive properties during continuous heating, watering and change of state (in molten form). Storage period is unlimited (TNT produced in the early 1930’s provides reliable detonation). Prolonged (60-70 years) staying in water, below ground or in munition shells slightly changes its explosive properties.
In normal conditions TNT is a solid substance. Density – 1.66 g/cm3. It melts at +81 degrees of centigrade, at the temperature of +310 degrees it bursts into flames. TNT is used in flakes, powdered and solid state.
Trinitrotoluene has become widely used and occupied certain niches in application of explosive matters due to ease and friendliness of its mechanical processing (easy to produce charges of any weight, fill any cavities, cut, drill, etc.), high chemical resistance and unreactiveness, comparatively poor sensitivity to environmental exposure. At the same time, it offers strong explosive behavior. It is used both in the pure state and in mixtures with other explosives (hexogen, tetryl, ten, ammonium nitrate powder and others), does not react with them. In a mixture with hexogen, tetryl and ten it decreases their sensitivity, and in a mixture with ammonium nitrate powders TNT increases their explosive characteristics, chemical resistance and reduce hygroscopicity. It is used as a basic explosive component for filling munitions, missiles, mortal and aerial bombs, land and flame mines for armies of CIS countries. TNT is a main blasting agent used for soil blasting, destruction of metal, concrete, brick and other constructions.
When performing works in rocky soil, implementation of TNT and TNT-containing explosives is preferable since it provides better fragmentation of the rock due to their higher brisance. Among all explosives used for crushing hard rocks so far, the best detonation parameters are provided by water-filled granular TNT (11.0 GPa pressure). Peak performance of most next-generation explosives is obviously lower. For example, best formulations of emulsion allow obtaining detonation pressure similar to water-filled TNT and not by means of energy, but comparatively high charge density (1.2—1.25 g/cm3).
The concept of mixed explosives based on ammonium nitrate with no TNT and other brisant explosives eliminates possibility in principle to design new formulations which could superior significantly (1.5—2.0 times) the existing ones in regard to pressure parameters. The obvious prof is the field experiences results : experiences have showed that TNT/ammonium nitrate mixture (50/50) with density of 1.6 g/cm3 in charges of pressed cartridges with 60 and 80 mm diameter has detonation velocity D=6.25 km/sec and approximate pressure of 150 Кbar. At that, crushing by means of pressed charges excels more than twofold fragmentation by ammonit 6 ZhV.
There is an application practice of pure TNT in wet wells, when the bottom (in case of vertical charging), which is fully filled with water and subjected to a pressure of the fluid column, at first is covered with TNT, as an absolutely waterproof substance, and then, where water level is significantly lower, it is covered with industrial explosives of lower waterproofing qualities. In such a manner it is excluded the possibility of detonation failure due to soaking of an explosive substance as well as it is reduced negative impact on the environment by preventing washout of residual explosives.
TNT is widely used for industrial explosives producing in combine with different composition.
Owing to its properties TNT is widerly used for production of industrial explosives with different composition.