Trinitrotoluene (tol, TNT, 2,4,6-trinitrometilbenzol) – is a chemical compound with the formula
C6H2 (NO2) 3CH3.
One of the most common high explosives. Is a yellow crystalline solid with a melting 80,85 ° C (melts with very hot water).
The explosive yield of TNT is considered to be the standard measure of strength of bombs and other explosives.
Used in industry and military affairs independently in granular (of granulated), molded or cast form, and as a part of many explosive mixtures (alyumotola, ammonal, ammonite, and others). In the USA, TNT in industrial and mining does not apply from the beginning of the 1990s due to the toxicity of the explosion products.
TNT much stabler many other explosives such as dynamite, friction and heat, and turns on only when a temperature of 290 ° C, so it can be relatively safely heated to melting temperature. It is very convenient, as it allows to easily impart the desired shape by molding. Moulded or pressed TNT can be ignited. It burns without exploding yellow flame. For normally requires the use of explosion of the detonator, but particulate TNT alloy may be sensitive to external influences, including the flame.
Despite the stability of TNT, in many applications and are trying to replace even more stable explosives. For example, the armed forces of the United States plan to replace TNT in large caliber projectiles on substance IMX-101.
TNT was obtained in 1863 by the German chemist Julius Vilbrandom.
Has the properties of antimycotics, formerly used in medicine as part of antifungal drugs “Likvatol” and “Ungvetol”, but because of the toxicity and the emergence of more effective drugs almost walked out of the medical use.
Density of 1654 kg / m³
The melting point of 80,85 ° C
The boiling point of 295 ° C
Flash point 290 ° C
The heat of explosion – 4228 kJ / kg
Detonation velocity – 6700-7000 m / s (density: 1.6 g / cm ³).
The velocity of detonation at a density of 1.62 – 7000m / s
Brisance of Hess – 16 mm
Brisance caste – 3.9 mm
Fugacity – 285 ml
The volume of the gaseous products of the explosion – 730 l / kg
Has a low sensitivity to shock (4-8% blasts when a load of 10 kg with a height of 25 cm)
Shelf life of about 25 years, after which TNT is more sensitive to detonation.